Bowers and Martin described the injury in American Football athletes in 1976. They described turf toe as hyperextension injury to joint behind the great toe. It varies in degree of injury to the ligaments, bones and muscles that make up the joint. The incidence of this injury is realitively high. Approximately 45% of football players have had turf toe at some point in their college or professional career.
Treatment for the injury can as simple as rest and stiffer sole shoe to surgery depending on the degree of injury. Long term effects of this injury can lead to arthritis in the big toe joint.